Imperforate anus

At birth, a baby girl has meconium in her vagina and no anal opening (imperforate anus). Describe this type of birth abnormally and the possible origin or causal factor.

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Prenatal ultrasound reveals an infant with an enlarged head and expansion of both lateral ventricles. 1. What is this condition called? 2. What might have caused it?

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A 28-year-old woman who received no prenatal care gives birth at 37 weeks’ gestation. The fetus is stillborn and has a number of anomalies including a flattened face, large and…

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Tetralogy of fallot

A 1-month-old infant is brought to the emergency department after he had a coughing spell while feeding and turned blue. His mother says that the blue color went away when…

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Cervical cytology

A 29-year-old woman presents to the gynecologist for recommendations regarding her abnormal Pap smear last week. She has a normal menstrual cycle and has never been pregnant. She does not…

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